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dc.creatorKunte, Krushnameghen
dc.creatorShea, Cristinaen
dc.creatorAardema, Matthew L.en
dc.creatorScriber, J. Marken
dc.creatorJuenger, Thomas E.en
dc.creatorGilbert, Lawrence E.en
dc.creatorKronforst, Marcus R.en
dc.identifier.citationKunte K, Shea C, Aardema ML, Scriber JM, Juenger TE, et al. (2011) Sex Chromosome Mosaicism and Hybrid Speciation among Tiger Swallowtail Butterflies. PLoS Genet 7(9): e1002274. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002274en
dc.descriptionKrushnamegh Kunte is with UT Austin and Harvard University, Cristina Shea is with Harvard University, Matthew L. Aardema is with Princeton University, J. Mark Scriber is with Michigan State University, Thomas E. Juenger is with UT Austin, Lawrence E. Gilbert is with UT Austin, Marcus R. Kronforst is with Harvard University.en
dc.description.abstractHybrid speciation, or the formation of a daughter species due to interbreeding between two parental species, is a potentially important means of diversification, because it generates new forms from existing variation. However, factors responsible for the origin and maintenance of hybrid species are largely unknown. Here we show that the North American butterfly Papilio appalachiensis is a hybrid species, with genomic admixture from Papilio glaucus and Papilio canadensis. Papilio appalachiensis has a mosaic phenotype, which is hypothesized to be the result of combining sex-linked traits from P. glaucus and P. canadensis. We show that P. appalachiensis' Z-linked genes associated with a cooler thermal habitat were inherited from P. canadensis, whereas its W-linked mimicry and mitochondrial DNA were inherited from P. glaucus. Furthermore, genome-wide AFLP markers showed nearly equal contributions from each parental species in the origin of P. appalachiensis, indicating that it formed from a burst of hybridization between the parental species, with little subsequent backcrossing. However, analyses of genetic differentiation, clustering, and polymorphism based on molecular data also showed that P. appalachiensis is genetically distinct from both parental species. Population genetic simulations revealed P. appalachiensis to be much younger than the parental species, with unidirectional gene flow from P. glaucus and P. canadensis into P. appalachiensis. Finally, phylogenetic analyses, combined with ancestral state reconstruction, showed that the two traits that define P. appalachiensis' mosaic phenotype, obligatory pupal diapause and mimicry, evolved uniquely in P. canadensis and P. glaucus, respectively, and were then recombined through hybridization to form P. appalachiensis. These results suggest that natural selection and sex-linked traits may have played an important role in the origin and maintenance of P. appalachiensis as a hybrid species. In particular, ecological barriers associated with a steep thermal cline appear to maintain the distinct, mosaic genome of P. appalachiensis despite contact and occasional hybridization with both parental species.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by University of Texas fellowships and research grants to KK and Faculty Research Grants to LEG and TEJ; NSF grant DEB-0716683 to JMS; NSF Award DEB-0546316 to TEJ; NSF grant DEB-0640512 to LEG; and NIH NIGMS Grant GM068763, NSF grant DEB-1020355, and Harvard University Bauer Fellow funds to MRK. Additional infrastructural and financial support was provided by the Michigan State Experiment Station Project # 01644 to JMS and College of Natural Sciences, Plant Science Fellowship, a Scriber Scholars in Butterfly Biology and Conservation Award (Dept. Entomology, MSU), and an NSF REU Award (DEB-0821958 to JMS) to MLA. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.en
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 United Statesen
dc.subjectAnimal genomicsen
dc.subjectEvolutionary ecologyen
dc.subjectGenome evolutionen
dc.subjectMoths and butterfliesen
dc.subjectPlant genomicsen
dc.titleSex Chromosome Mosaicism and Hybrid Speciation among Tiger Swallowtail Butterfliesen
dc.description.departmentBiological Sciences, School ofen

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