Stability and change in parenting attitudes and behaviors regarding discipline : the effectiveness of a hands-on training program in positive guidance
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This study examined which methods are most effective in training parents to use positive guidance techniques, a lecture-base only parent training series or a lecture-based plus hands-on parent training series. Maternal characteristics of depression, stress level, and attitudes towards positive guidance were explored as possible moderators. A two way repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the cognitive understanding of the use of positive guidance over time of the participants in the control versus treatment groups did not significantly differ. However, a t-test showed that both groups improved in their cognitive understanding of positive guidance over time. A second two way repeated measures ANOVA confirmed that the behavioral use of positive guidance over time of the participants in the control versus treatment groups significantly differed. Further investigation revealed that, while the two groups did not differ in their behavioral use of positive guidance before the program, the treatment group improved over time whereas the control group did not. Depression, stress level, and attitudes towards positive guidance did not moderate the effects of being in the control versus treatment group on participants' behavioral use of positive guidance. The results indicate that all participants gained a better understanding of effective parenting techniques, but a hands-on component in parent training programs may be necessary for parents to incorporate these strategies into their parenting behaviors.