Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on epitaxial germanium layers grown selectively directly on silicon substrates by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition
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This document details experiments attempting to increase the performance of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) which are the mainstay of the semiconductor industry. Replacing the silicon channel with an ultra-thin epitaxial germanium layer grown selectively on a silicon (100) bulk wafer is examined in detail. The gate oxide chosen for the germanium devices is a high-k gate oxide, HfO2, and the gate electrode is a metal gate, tantalum-nitride. They demonstrate large improvements in drive current and mobility over identically processed silicon PMOSFETs. In addition to the planar germanium PMOSFETs, a process has been developed for 50nm and smaller germanium P-finFETs and N and P germanium tunnel-FETs. The patterning of sub-30nm wide and 230nm tall three dimensional fins has been done with electron beam lithography and dry plasma etching. The processes to deposit high-k gate oxide and metal gates on the sub-30nm wide fins have been developed. All that remains for the production of these devices is electron beam lithography with a maximum misalignment error of 40nm.