Two problems in many-body physics
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In this dissertation, the applications of many-body physics in neutral bosons and electronic systems in transition metal oxides are discussed. In the first part of the thesis, I will introduce the concepts of Bose condensation, emphasize the significance of the order parameter in superfluids (macroscopic wave function), and its consequence such as the emergence of exotic vortex states under rotation. Dated back to the importance of the vortex dynamics in the properties of high T[subscript c] superconductors, people have introduced a dual vortex description to describe the dynamics of charged bosons in a magnetic field. Similarly, the dual description is adapted to the problems of neutral bosons under rotation. Based on that picture, vortices behave like charges in an effective magnetic field which has been known to demonstrate different quantum phases such as Wigner crystal phase, and fractional quantum Hall liquid phases depending on the relative fraction of the number of bosons and vortices. In this work, we would like to address the validity of the picture by low energy effective theory. We can identify the origin of the vortex masse and the parameter regimes in which the vortex dual description is appropriate. In the second part of the dissertation, density functional theory is used to describe the strongly correlated matters with local density approximation and local Hubbard U interaction(LDA+U). We are particularly interested in the interface states in the heterojunction systems of two different perovskite oxides. What we found is that the interface states can be engineered to appear in certain transitional metal oxide layers by controlling the number of positive and negative charged layers, leading to the formation of quantum wells in two dimension. This type of systems ignite the hope to search for broken symmetry states in the interface which can be tunable with chemical doping or electric field doping. Even room temperature superconducting state may or may not exist in the interface is still an intriguing issue.