A model of the interaction of bubbles and solid particles under acoustic excitation
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The Lagrangian formalism utilized by Ilinskii, Hamilton and Zabolotskaya [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 786-795 (2007)] to derive equations for the radial and translational motion of interacting bubbles is extended here to obtain a model for the dynamics of interacting bubbles and elastic particles. The bubbles and particles are assumed to be spherical but are otherwise free to pulsate and translate. The model is accurate to fifth order in terms of a nondimensional expansion parameter R/d, where R is a characteristic radius and d is a characteristic distance between neighboring bubbles or particles. The bubbles and particles may be of nonuniform size, the particles elastic or rigid, and external acoustic sources are included to an order consistent with the accuracy of the model. Although the liquid is assumed initially to be incompressible, corrections accounting for finite liquid compressibility are developed to first order in the acoustic Mach number for a cluster of bubbles and particles, and to second order in the acoustic Mach number for a single bubble. For a bubble-particle pair consideration is also given to truncation of the model at fifth order in R/d via automated derivation of the model equations to arbitrary order. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effects of key parameters such as particle density and size, liquid compressibility, particle elasticity and model order on the dynamics of single bubbles, pairs of bubbles, bubble-particle pairs and clusters of bubbles and particles under both free response conditions and sinusoidal or shock wave excitation.