Mechanism of mass mobilization and creating state citizens during the economic development period
This research deals with the discordance between the national state and the nation state in the formation of the Republic of Korea (ROK). Charles Tilly (1992) distinguishes between the concept of the national state and that of the nation state, even though many scholars use the nation state. According to Charles Tilly (1975;1985;1992), a national state is simply state that rules demarcated territories, has a differentiated administration, and centralized autonomous structures, while the nation state is a state that comprises one single nation, in other words, a nation is the basis of the nation state. Tilly defines the nation as one community in which people share a strong linguistic, ethnic, religious1and symbolic, historical identity. Based on this national state theory, national subject and identity of the new Korean nation are keys to understand this research. The ROK has been a very strong state in terms of despotic power, which means physical violent means of the state. The ROK has reemerged as a strong state after the Korean War. The regime based on this characteristic tries to mobilize people and their resources. People should answer the state’s call and participate in national development projects. But even the strongest regime cannot rely on its superiority or monopolized means of physical violence to mobilize people and their resources. Therefore, as in fascist states, the regime created a variety of Administered Mass Organization (AMOs). There are two big purposes in mobilizing people of the ROK: one is de-politicization; the other is enforced cooperation in the name of nationalism, which means “state-formed nationalism.” The Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), the Hankooknochong (Federation of Korea Trade Unions), and the Hakdohokookdan (Student National Defense Corps) were the main AMOs under Park’s rule. De-politicization played a role in making Koreans participants in the AMOs by avoiding being labeled as Uhyong, meaning collaborator with the dictator. Under surf of various ideologies to encourage South Koreans’ participation in development projects or AMOs, South Koreans began to identify themselves with a new ideology as state citizens of the ROK. A new Korean nation emerged through the experiences that Koreans had participated in. This thesis investigates the process of the creation of the new Korean nation during the economic development period. The salvation of a struggle between the nation state vs the national state in Korea emerged as an economic development and the creation a new Korean nation within the boundary of demilitarized zone the ROK. National subject discourse becomes a key factor of the process of emergence of a new Korean nation.