Dynamic tunneling and chaos in atom optical systems
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Dynamical tunneling has been observed in atom optics experiments by two groups, one in Texas using Cesium atoms and the other at NIST using a Bose–Einstein condensate. This tunneling is classically forbidden due to the isolation of the atoms in momentum space. The experimental results are extremely well described by time-periodic Hamiltonians with momentum quantized in units of the atomic recoil. The oscillations observed in these experiments are due to a few Floquet states that were excited by the initial conditions in the experiment. The observed tunneling has a well defined period when only two Floquet states dominate the dynamics. Beat frequencies are observed when three Floquet states dominate. Frequencies which are calculted theoretically match those observed by both experiments. The dynamical origin of the dominant Floquet states is identified as resulting from states which are excited by the initial conditions of the experiment.