Carbazole based anion receptors
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Anions are of great importance in the environment and health, thus it is no wonder that a great deal of research has been conducted to create synthetic receptors that can bind to various anions. In the past few decades, research and synthesis of novel receptors containing pyrrole, such as “expanded” porphyrins, has increased tremendously. These new synthetic molecules have been used as means for various applications including anion binding, sensing, transport and delivery. Previous work has shown some success in trying to use carbazole as a key component in combination with pyrrole for receptor synthesis. Carbazole has a large size, flourescent properties and a more acidic NH donor than the pyrrolic NH normally found in these analogues to bind ions. The synthesis and analysis of new carbazole-based receptors, “expanded” porphyrin macrocycles and amidopyrroles, is discussed with special attention paid to the modification of carbazole in an attempt to enhance binding and solubility of the receptors. Binding with various anions (chloride, benzoate, and dihydrogen phosphate) was studied and all molecules were shown to have an increased affinity for phosphate. However, there were notable differences in anion selectivity between the various receptors.