An exploratory study of the implementation and teacher outcomes of a program to train elementary educators about ADHD in the schools
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This study explored the implementation and outcomes of a district-wide teacher inservice training program on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Outcomes with regard to teacher knowledge about ADHD, perceived teacher confidence in working with students with ADHD, and teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming students with ADHD were investigated. Teacher efficacy was also examined. Theoretical linkages among the aforementioned constructs were explored and participant satisfaction with the inservice program was assessed. Participants, elementary school teachers (N=47), responded to several self-report measures prior to, and immediately following, the presented inservice training program. One multiple-choice measure, the Educator ADHD Knowledge Form, was utilized, as were several Likert-type scales, including: Perceived Confidence in Working with Students with ADHD, Teacher Attitudes Toward Mainstreaming Students with ADHD, and the Teacher Efficacy Scale. The Demographic Information Form was used to solicit information describing the participants. The Participant Satisfaction Form was administered to assess the extent to which the training program met the identified needs of the participants. Teacher outcome results of this study demonstrated that teacher knowledge and teacher perceived confidence in working with students with ADHD significantly improved as a result of the training program. Teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming students with ADHD did not improve. With regard to theoretical linkages, results revealed that teacher perceived confidence in working with students with ADHD was significantly correlated to teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming students with ADHD. Additionally, teacher efficacy was found to be significantly correlated to teacher perceived confidence in working with students with ADHD. Relationships among: teacher efficacy and teacher knowledge about ADHD; teacher efficacy and teacher attitudes toward mainstreaming; teacher knowledge and teacher perceived confidence in working with students with ADHD; were not found to be significant. Results also reflected participant satisfaction with the inservice training program presented on ADHD and the extent to which it met their training needs. Limitations and implications for theory and practice are noted. Suggested future research directions include similarly assessing other school staff, assessing additional effects of the training within the classroom setting, and exploring teacher factors with regard to varying degrees of severity of ADHD among students.