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Formal Functions in Menuets by Mozart, Part 4: His Older Contemporaries, to 1770
This essay charts formal functions (after Caplin) in named menuets written during the second half of the eighteenth century. The repertoire includes menuets by Johann Stamitz, Johann Gottfried Müthel, Franz Joseph Haydn, ...
Formal Functions in Menuets by Mozart, Part 5: More to Theoretical Issues
This essay considers some theoretical questions raised at the end of Part 4 in this series. William Caplin’s theory of formal functions in Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven stipulates that themes are of two primary types (period, ...
Formal Functions in Menuets by Mozart, Part 7: Contemporaries and Successors, 1780-1828
This final essay in the Mozart series charts formal functions (after Caplin) in named menuets written by other composers during the last ten years of Mozart’s life, 1780-1791, and by three composers active in Vienna ...
Dominant Ninth Harmonies in the 19th Century
In European music, freer treatment of the sixth and seventh scale degrees in the major key encouraged the use of independent V9 chords, which appear already early in the nineteenth century, are common by the mid-1830s, and ...
Formal Functions in Menuets by Mozart, Part 6: Contemporaries, 1771-1780
This essay continues the documentation of formal functions (after Caplin) in named menuets from the eighteenth century, as begun in parts 1-4 of this series. In this essay, the focus is on menuets written by other composers ...
Johann Strauss, jr., Die Fledermaus: Ascending Cadence Gestures on Stage
Die Fledermaus (1874), today the best-known operetta by Johann Strauss, jr., is also a treasure trove of ascending cadence gestures. This article documents and interprets those multiple instances and their effects.
Formal Functions in Menuets by Mozart, Part 3: A Comparison with Johann Christian Bach
This essay charts formal functions (after Caplin) in named menuets by Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) and compares them with menuets by Mozart. Bach is notable for exploiting the “galant theme,” presumably because of its ...