Manifold signal processing for MIMO communications
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The coding and feedback inaccuracies of the channel state information (CSI) in limited feedback multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems can severely impact the achievable data rate and reliability. The CSI is mathematically represented as a Grassmann manifold or manifold of unitary matrices. These are non-Euclidean spaces with special constraints that makes efficient and high fidelity coding especially challenging. In addition, the CSI inaccuracies may occur due to digital representation, time variation, and delayed feedback of the CSI. To overcome these inaccuracies, the manifold structure of the CSI can be exploited. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a new signal processing techniques on the manifolds to harvest the benefits of MIMO wireless systems. First, this dissertation presents the Kerdock codebook design to represent the CSI on the Grassmann manifold. The CSI inaccuracy due to digital representation is addressed by the finite alphabet structure of the Kerdock codebook. In addition, systematic codebook construction is identified which reduces the resource requirement in MIMO wireless systems. Distance properties on the Grassmann manifold are derived showing the applicability of the Kerdock codebook to beam-forming and spatial multiplexing systems. Next, manifold-constrained algorithms to predict and encode the CSI with high fidelity are presented. Two prominent manifolds are considered; the Grassmann manifold and the manifold of unitary matrices. The Grassmann manifold is a class of manifold used to represent the CSI in MIMO wireless systems using specific transmission strategies. The manifold of unitary matrices appears as a collection of all spatial information available in the MIMO wireless systems independent of specific transmission strategies. On these manifolds, signal processing building blocks such as differencing and prediction are derived. Using the proposed signal processing tools on the manifold, this dissertation addresses the CSI coding accuracy, tracking of the CSI under time variation, and compensation techniques for delayed CSI feedback. Applications of the proposed algorithms in single-user and multiuser systems show that most of the spatial benefits of MIMO wireless systems can be harvested.