Optical clock signal distribution and packaging optimization
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Polymer-based waveguides for optoelectronic interconnects and packagings were fabricated by a fabrication process that is compatible with the Si CMOS packaging process. An optoelectronic interconnection layer (OIL) for the high-speed massive clock signal distribution for the Cray T-90 supercomputer board employing optical multimode channel waveguides in conjunction with surface-normal waveguide grating couplers and a 1-to-2 3 dB splitter was constructed. Equalized optical paths were realized using an optical H-tree structure having 48 optical fanouts. This device could be increased to 64 without introducing any additional complications. A 1-to-48 fanout H-tree structure using Ultradel 9000D series polyimide was fabricated. The propagation loss and splitting loss have been measured as 0.21 dB/cm and 0.4 dB/splitter at 850 nm. The power budget was discussed, and the H-tree waveguide fully satisfies the power budget requirement. A tapered waveguide coupler was employed to match the mode profile between the singlemode fiber and the multimode channel waveguides of the OIL. VII A thermo-optical based multimode switch was designed, fabricated, and tested. The finite difference method was used to simulate the thermal distribution in the polymer waveguide. Both stable and transient conditions have been calculated. The thermo-optical switch was fabricated and tested. The switching speed of 1 ms was experimentally confirmed, fitting well with the simulation results. Thermo-optic switching for randomly polarized light at wavelengths of 850 nm was experimental confirmed, as was a stable attenuation of 25 dB. The details of tapered waveguide fabrication were investigated. Compressionmolded 3-D tapered waveguides were demonstrated for the first time. Not only the vertical depth variation but also the linear dimensions of the molded waveguides were well beyond the limits of what any other conventional waveguide fabrication method is capable of providing. Molded waveguides with vertical depths of 100 µm at one end and 5µm at the other end and lengths of 1.0 cm were fabricated using a photolime gel polymer. A propagation loss of 0.5 dB/cm was achieved when light was coupled from the 5 µm x 5 µm end to the 100 µm x 100 µm end and that of 1.1 dB/cm was observed when light was coupled from the 100 µm x 100 µm end to the 5 µm x 5 µm. By confining the energy to the fundamental mode when coupling from the large end to the small end, lowloss packaging can be achieved bi-directionally. 3-D compression-molded polymeric waveguides present a promising solution to bridging the huge dynamic range of different optoelectronic device-depths varying from a few microns to several hundred microns.