Effects of functional and resistive exercise training on physical function and perceived self-efficacy and well-being in frail elderly adults
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This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether 12 weeks of functional training or resistive training would influence physical function, physical self-efficacy, and psychological well-being among frail elderly adults relative to a comparison group. Volunteers (N = 96, M = 82.5 years, SD = 6.5, range 70-99 years) were selected from eight different sites that included nursing homes, assisted living institutions, retirement centers, and senior recreation sites. Functional training, resistive training or a control condition was randomly assigned to each site. The participants at each site met two times a week for one hour. The functional training group practiced everyday living tasks (functional training) to motivate them to move their bodies more in ways that would contribute to instrumental activities of daily living. The resistive training group used elastic bands and increased intensity when appropriate by changing the resistance of the band. The comparison group participated in regular site activities, such as Bingo. The results from covariate group analyses that controlled for age, gender, education level, medication usage, attendance, and problems associated with impaired performance, indicated that older adultsí physical function as it relates to physical function test scores was maintained and may have improved slightly with functional training but not with resistive elastic band training. Group means were significantly improved in the functional training group on the PPT total score, and also on a single item of the PPT-7 Test, putting on and taking off a jacket. The three groups did not differ on the posttests, partly because the resistive training group decreased and the functional group increased from midpoint to posttest. However, a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis used to account for site membership and individual growth curves in repeated measures revealed no differences that could be attributed to group membership. Resistive bands were not effective in increasing physical function in this elderly population as their use appeared to require more strength and balance to execute than this group could provide. Although well-being and physical selfefficacy were related to physical function in these frail elderly adults, different types of physical training did not significantly affect perceived well-being and physical self-efficacy from the pretest to the posttest.