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    Padre Island National Seashore : a guide to the geology, natural environments, and history of a Texas barrier island
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1980) Weise, Bonnie R.
    For the past decade, geologists at the Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, have prepared various maps of the Texas Coastal Zone. The Environmental Geologic Atlas of the Texas Coastal Zone, a seven-volume series, includes environmental geologic maps as well as other maps depicting special features of the region such as land use, mineral and energy resources, and natural processes. A special atlas, Natural Hazards of the Texas Coastal Zone, illustrates the occurrence and significance of hazards such as hurricane tidal flooding, coastal erosion, and land subsidence. Another atlas, Sediment Distribution, Bathymetry, Faults, and Salt Diapirs on the Submerged Lands of Texas, presents a view of Texas lands beneath bays, lagoons, and the inner continental shelf. These and other published maps of the Texas Coastal Zone provide a comprehensive picture of the natural environments and manmade features of this remarkable coastal region. More and more Texans and out-of-state visitors are becoming interested in the Coastal Zone and its recreational attributes, economic potential, and environmental sensitivity. Consequently, our coastal geologists have prepared a nontechnical guide to a fascinating part of our Coastal Zone - Padre Island National Seashore. We hope that this guidebook and map will acquaint the casual seashore visitor with our most primitive Texas barrier island. For more serious amateur naturalists, the guidebook and map provide an introduction to the many natural environments and active processes that compose this South Texas barrier island. The guidebook is designed to complement the accompanying multicolored map of the natural and man-made features of the island. A wealth of information has been summarized in the guidebook and keyed to the map using a coordinate location system. Similarly, many ground-level and aerial photographs and sketches explain the past history and current character of Padre Island. We hope that the guide to Padre Island will make your visit more enjoyable. Perhaps your visit will give you a fuller appreciation of the island's natural setting and its sensitivity to natural processes and man's modification.
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    Modern depositional environments of the Texas coast
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1980) Morton, Robert A.
    The Texas Coastal Plain is ideal for studying physical processes and the late Quaternary sedimentological record. Together, the diversity of depositional environments, the moderate climate, and the accessibility to most areas provide unique opportunities for (1) conducting geological investigations of modern sediments and the hydrodynamics responsible for their formation and (2) developing models suitable for interpreting ancient sediments. Within a span of about 350 mi (564 km), a broad spectrum of depositional systems is found. These systems include coarse-grained and fine-grained fluvial channels, bayhead and oceanic deltas, coastal lagoons, transgressive and regressive barriers, and a host of other nearshore deposits that are commonly preserved in ancient sedimentary basins and recognized in outcrop or by applications of subsurface methods. Morphology and facies distribution within the Coastal Zone are responses to climatic gradients, low wave energy, and low tidal range that characterize the northwest Gulf of Mexico. Within this microtidal, storm-dominated region, sediment dispersal is controlled largely by wind forcing and river flooding. Wind forces are responsible either entirely or partly for aeolian activities, wind tides, bay circulation, wave generation, shelf circulation, and longshore currents. River discharge provides the primary mechanism for sediment transport into the Coastal Zone. The Coastal Zone is a dynamic area, as evidenced by monitoring of physical and biological parameters during historical time. Proper analysis of extant conditions requires an appreciation for the temporal and spatial variations in processes that are attributed to both natural changes and human modifications. Human alterations are clearly responsible for some significant coastal changes. For example, progradation of the Brazos and Colorado deltas, closing of Packery Channel, and lateral infilling of Pass Cavallo attendant with spit accretion are all related to major engineering projects. Documentation of specific historical conditions, such as overbank flooding and storm washover, is invaluable for understanding sediment transport and deposition during these low-frequency, high-energy events. When placed in context, such historical documentation permits hydrodynamic reconstructions for the modern sediments, which in turn can be transferred to the ancient rock record. Vertical successions of stratification types, textural variations, crosscutting relationships, and sand-body geometry, as well as three-dimensional facies distribution, are diagnostic of particular depositional systems. This is demonstrated by discussions covering the broad spectrum of Texas coastal environments from the fluvial systems to the inner shelf.
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    Recent sediments of Southeast Texas : a field guide to the Brazos alluvial and deltaic plains and the Galveston barrier island complex
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1970) Bernard, Hugh A., 1914-
    This guidebook is a reprinting of a field guide prepared by Shell Development Company as part of a three-day industrial short course for full-time college teachers in geology, conducted from March 30 to April 1, 1970, by Shell Development Company, Houston, Texas, in cooperation with AGI Council on Education in Geological Sciences. The guidebook includes excellent summaries and well-illustrated documentation of elastic depositional environments and related facies of the southeastern Texas Coast. The models presented herein by the Shell group - based on several years of detailed investigation and three-dimensional reconstruction - should be of considerable interest to individuals concerned with the interpretation and study of ancient depositional environments and modern counterparts. For this reason, the Bureau of Economic Geology is pleased to publish this guide as Guidebook No. 11 in its regular guidebook series.
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    The Big Bend of the Rio Grande ; a guide to the rocks, landscape, geologic history, and settlers of the area of Big Bend National Park
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1968) Maxwell, Ross A.
    The scene is set. According to Indian legend, when the Great Creator made the earth and had finished placing the stars in the sky, the birds in the air, and the fish in the sea, there was a large pile of rejected stony materials left over. Finished with His job, He threw this into one heap and made the Big Bend. The rocks are strangely mixed up; most of the strata are lopsided or standing on end, and some of the mountains are turned upside down and piled where they do not appear to fit. Along the Rio Grande are deep, yawning canyons, and above them are mountain peaks that rise above the flats like giant sentinels. The Chisos Mountains, with their ghost-like peaks, guard the northern approach to the river, and the Sierra del Carmen range, overlooking the southern bank, rises as a sheer wall to heights that dwarf the Palisades of the Hudson. Mexicans and Anglo-Saxons both have taken part in settling the area. In the early days, large herds of cattle moved about on a free range, dependent upon the location of grass and water; herds were driven in both directions across the Rio Grande without regulations imposed by either government. The big adventures in the settling of this vast frontier area are over, but history here is only yesterday and is close enough to intrigue both tourists and local inhabitants. It was the idea of preserving the area with its unique traditions that led to the proposal in 1935 to set aside as a National Park the southern portion of the Big Bend country, which was purchased by the State of Texas and deeded to the Federal government. Because of the immensity of the area and the inaccessibility of parts of it, tourists cannot hope to explore the Big Bend completely. But the adventuresome and scenery-loving traveler will be captured by the spell of the place on just a short excursion into the area. The name Big Bend is somewhat loosely applied to the area surrounded on three sides by the Rio Grande, where this great river swings deeply southward into Mexico approximately halfway in its course between El Paso and Laredo. The Rio Grande also marks the boundary between the United States of Mexico and the United States of America. All of the area in Brewster and Presidio counties south of the Southern Pacific Railway is commonly considered as the Big Bend country. Big Bend National Park lies within the southernmost tip of the area and is only a portion of the Big Bend country (fig. 1). The Park includes both lowland and mountain environments; it was selected for a National Park because of scenery, geologic features, and the display of southwestern plant and animal communities. Big Bend National Park includes 708,281 acres of federally-owned land; it is not completely developed. There are no railroads, and only recently has it been served by paved highways. It is a harsh land. Although there are many canyons, broad stream valleys, and great cobble-choked arroyos, only a few are permanently occupied by running water. Most of them are mainly the result of past erosion in a wetter time. The present terrain gives the impression that when Mother Nature had finished cutting the canyons and carving the many topographic features, she turned off the water supply.
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    Geologic and historic guide to the State parks of Texas
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1970) Maxwell, Ross A.
    Texas is no longer a frontier. The expansion of cities, industries, superhighways, and reservoirs, and changing land uses are fast absorbing the open spaces that once were so abundant in Texas. Unlike many states that contain vast areas of National forests and parks, there is little federally owned land in Texas, so the State must rely on its own State parks system for outdoor recreational activities. Until recently, however, the State parks program was operated with limited finances, and as a result, Texas is far behind the established national acreage average in its State parks. The present State parks cover about 64,000 acres, but of this total, only 18,888 acres is land area available to meet the public's demand for recreation, and only slightly more than 8,000 acres is currently developed to an adequate standard. For our own well-being and for those who follow after us, we must treat the land with respect, conserve it, and wisely develop it. In addition to the 61 recreation, scenic, and historic parks listed in this report, there are many other places in Texas that are of historic interest - old missions, old houses and buildings, burial sites, etc. Some of these have been included as points of interest if they are near a specified State park; many have granite or metal markers at or near their sites.
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    Texas fossils : an amateur collector's handbook
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1960) Matthews, William Henry, 1919-
    Almost everyone has seen the fossilized remains of prehistoric plants or animals. These might have been the skeleton of a gigantic dinosaur, the petrified trunk of an ancient tree, or the shells of snails or oysters that lived in the great seas that covered Texas millions of years ago. Each year more and more people are learning that these fossils are more than mere curiosities. Instead, they are realizing that a good collection of fossils provides much information about the early history of our earth, and that fossil collecting can be a most enjoyable, fascinating, and rewarding hobby. It is for these people that Texas Fossils was written. This publication is primarily an amateur collector's handbook and as such offers many suggestions and aids to those who would pursue the hobby of fossil collecting. It tells, for example, what fossils are, where and how to collect them, and how they are used. Suggestions are made as to how the specimens may be identified and catalogued, and there are discussions and illustrations of the main types of plant and animal fossils. Included also is a simplified geologic map of Texas and a brief review of the geology of the State. Texas Fossils is not a comprehensive study of the paleontology of Texas. Rather, it deals primarily with the more common species that the average collector is likely to find. These fossils are illustrated in the plates and figures, and these illustrations should be of some help in identifying the specimens in one's collection. Included for completeness, however, are sketches and descriptions of some of the more rare and unusual fossils, and, for general interest, there are illustrations and descriptions of many of the extinct reptiles and mammals that once inhabited this State. In addition, a group of selected references has been included for the reader who wishes to know more about earth history and paleontology. Many of these publications provide references of a more technical nature for the more advanced or serious collector, and some of them list excellent collecting localities. A minimum of technical terminology has been used, but terms not commonly found in dictionaries, or which have not been explained in the text, are defined in the glossary.
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    Tertiary and Quaternary stratigraphy and vertebrate paleontology of parts of northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1990) Gustavson, Thomas C.
    This field guide summarizes recent interpretations of the upper Cenozoic stratigraphy of parts of the Southern High Plains and Rolling Plains in northwestern Texas and eastern New Mexico. Processes that formed lacustrine basins, which pond surface water on the High Plains that is recharged to the Ogallala aquifer. are also described. Field trip stops were selected to illustrate the depositional facies and paleosols of Cenozoic formations, Cenozoic local faunas, and lacustrine basins. Eolian facies (loess and sheet sands) and calcic paleosols that characterize the Quaternary Blackwater Draw Formation and the upper part of the Neogene Ogallala Formation (Group) are emphasized (Stops 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, and 13) (fig. 1). Fluvial facies in the Ogallala Formation are described from exposures at both the east and northwest erosional limits of the unit (Stops 3, 6, 10, 12, and 13). Sections in the Ogallala. Blanco, and Quaternary Tule Formations containing local vertebrate faunas of Clarendonian age (Stops 6 and 14), Hemphillian age (Stops 3, 6, 15, 16, and 17). Blancan age (Stop 5) and lrvingtonlan age (Stop 8) are described Oocations of Stops 14-17 are given on separate maps). Evidence of the geomorphic processes of subsidence induced by piping and subsidence related to dissolution of CaC03 , which led to the development of lake basins on the High Plains is discussed at Stop 2.
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    Hydrogeology of Trans-Pecos Texas
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1990) Kreitler, Charles W.
    This guidebook, Hydrogeology of Trans-Pecos Texas, grew out of our interest in the hydrogeology of desert environments. After we participated in Marty Mifflin and Jay Quade's 1988 field trip through eastern Nevada; we realized that, although there were many similarities, the hydrogeology of Trans-Pecos Texas was quite different from what we had observed in Nevada. Thus the seed was planted for this field trip and guidebook. We hope that those who participate in this trip will likewise become intrigued with the hydrogeology of West Texas and will return to their own hydrologic environments, arid or otherwise, with some new approaches and concepts. The guidebook is a compendium of information on the hydrogeology of Trans-Pecos Texas. It includes a road log for the 2-1/2-day trip, a list of references cited in the road log, six technical papers, and seven papers previously published in scattered symposia and other guidebooks. These papers provide greater detail than can be contained in the road log. Much of the information for the road log was generated during four previous field trips (1984, 1986, 1988, and 1989) to the Trans-Pecos region, conducted in conjunction with the graduate course in Geology and Hydrology offered at the Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin. We appreciate the interest and formal and informal contributions of numerous students. Malcolm Ferris assisted in compiling the second- and third-day road logs. The 1989 Geology and Hydrology class served on the rehearsal field trip. Financial and logistical support of the Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, for these field excursions is gratefully acknowledged.
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    The geologic story of Palo Duro Canyon
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1969) Matthews, William Henry, 1919-
    Like the early Spanish explorers who first saw Palo Duro Canyon, today's visitor is likely to view the impressive canyon with surprise and awe. This great depression - it is more than 2 miles wide and as much as 800 feet deep within park boundaries - contains a fascinating assortment of multicolored geologic formations and erosion-produced rock sculptures of many shapes, colors, and sizes. The geographic setting of the canyon further heightens its impact on the visitor, for it is surrounded by the level, virtually treeless plains of the Texas Panhandle. (See the upper background area in fig. 1, frontispiece). It is not surprising that this scenic area has been set aside as a State park, for Palo Duro Canyon has long been of interest to man. First, as the hunting grounds of prehistoric Indians who stalked the now-extinct Ice Age mammoths and bison that roamed the valley floor. Later, the canyon was frequented by the Comanches, Apaches, Kiowas, and other Indians of historic time. These tribes, like those before them, found both food and refuge within the canyon. However, it was not until 1876 that Palo Duro Canyon was inhabited by the white man. It was during this year that pioneer cattleman Charles Goodnight herded some 1,600 head of cattle into the canyon and established a camp there (p. 6). Today's visitor to Palo Duro Canyon can relive some of the fascinating history of this interesting area. One can still see a replica of Colonel Goodnight's primitive dugout, follow the faint trace of the Comanche Trail, or perhaps find the fossil bones of prehistoric creatures that lived hundreds of thousands - even millions - of years ago. But most visitors to Texas' most colorful canyon are not attracted by its interesting history. They come instead to enjoy the scenery and recreational opportunities that are present. These are readily accessible, for a carefully engineered, hard-surface road leads from the rim of the canyon to the canyon floor. There are campgrounds, picnic areas, concessions, and even an outdoor theatre (fig. 23). The location of these facilities and some of the canyon's more interesting geologic features are shown on the generalized place map of the canyon (fig. 2). This publication does not attempt to describe the scenic beauty of Palo Duro Canyon, for this must be seen to be appreciated. Rather, it discusses the geologic setting and origin of the canyon, the methods by which some of the more interesting geologic features were formed, and briefly reviews the history of the area. Hopefully, it will enable the visitor to understand better the meaning behind the canyon scenery, thereby enhancing his visit.
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    Uranium geology and mines, South Texas
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1971) Eargle, Dolan
    In recent years, exploration and mining of uranium have become a significant part of the Texas mineral scene, with Texas emerging as a leading uranium-producing state. At the end of 1970, Texas ranked third in reserves among the states, with ore reserves of 6.6 million tons. Continuation of the recent high level of exploration is shown by the 6.1 million feet of drilling in Texas during 1970, surpassed only by drilling activity in Wyoming. This guidebook is a reprinting of a field trip guidebook originally printed by the Houston Geological Society for the annual meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists held in Houston, April 1971. This field guide should serve as a valuable reference to the important uranium mineral district in South Texas.
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    The Edwards reef complex and associated sedimentation in central Texas
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1973) Nelson, H. F. (Henry F.)
    The Fredericksburg Group is one of three groups of rocks which comprise the outcropping Lower Cretaceous sediments in north central Texas. Four formations form this group; from the base upward these are the Paluxy, Walnut, Comanche Peak and Edwards (fig. 1). The Paluxy is made up of terrigenous elastics-red and gray sandstone plus some shale and conglomerate-that were deposited in subaerial and shallow nearshore marine environments. The Walnut consists of nodular chalk and microgranular limestone (micrite), marl, and pelecypod shell beds. The Comanche Peak is a massively bedded, compressed nodular, slightly argillaceous micrite. Both of these formations were deposited on a shallow marine backreef shelf. The Edwards Formation, the primary subject of this field trip, is made up of many types of both primary and diagenetic limestones, dolomite, chert, and evaporites that were formed in both normal marine and hypersaline environments. Sediments deposited in the latter environment were subsequently altered to a considerable extent by secondary processes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that each of these formations grades both upward and laterally to the south into the formation immediately above. In southern Oklahoma the Paluxy (or sandstones having other names) forms a major part of the Fredericksburg Group. In north central Texas the Walnut and Comanche Peak make up the major thickness of the group. In central Texas the Edwards forms almost the entire Fredericksburg section. Deep in the subsurface, the Edwards forms the entire Fredericksburg Group and, in places, is lithologically indistinguishable from the underlying Trinity and overlying Washita sediments. Outcrops in north central Texas are ideally located to demonstrate the regional facies changes from the subaerial and nearshore sites of deposition, across the shallow marine backreef shelf, through the reef complex, and into the restricted lagoon. However, because time does not permit a study of this complete transition, the field trip concentrates upon the features of the reef complex and its transition into the adjoining backreef sediments and restricted lagoon deposits that have been extensively altered. Six localities (fig. 2) have been chosen to show the major physical features of this part of the Fredericksburg Group. The trip begins in the north end of the area where the Edwards reef complex overlies the backreef sediments (Stops 1 and 2). It then proceeds to a locality (Stop 3) where. the upper part of the reef facies and its onlap by interreef sediments can be seen. The last three localities show the physical features formed by diagenesis. In this discussion, localities are referred to by t heir originally assigned numbers (Nelson, 1959) and by local names for those localities which were not included in the previous study.
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    Geology of Monahans Sandhills State Park, Texas
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1984) Machenberg, Marcie D.
    Sand dunes at Monahans Sandhills State Park display a variety of dune forms that develop under a unique trimodal wind regime. Large expanses of unvegetated sand form akle dunes having reversing slip faces. Smaller dune forms in the park include wind-shadow, coppice, transverse, barchan, and parabolic dunes. Blowout dunes also occur in the heavily vegetated cover sands of the Pecos Plain surface. Seasonal wind regimes can be divided into three groups: summer, winter, and spring winds. Persistent summer winds from the south-southeast build long transverse dunes. These are modified by erratic gusty winds in the spring (transitional), and winter winds from the north and west during the passage of storm fronts. Dunes shift position as much as 65 ft (20 m) under the influence of strong transitional winds but migrate slowly back to their approximate original location so that net migration over the course of a year is negligible. The Monahans Sandhills have been occupied by people for more than 10,000 yr, as evidenced by several archeological discoveries. Native plants and animals have developed special adaptations in order to survive on the limited resources of this sandy, everchanging environment.
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    Geology of the Llano region and Austin area : field excursion
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1972) Barnes, Virgil E. (Virgil Everett), 1903-1998
    This Guidebook represents an updating of Bureau of Economic Geology Guidebook No. 5, Field Excursion-Geology of Llano Region and Austin Area. It also represents a modification of Geology of the Llano Region and Austin Area, Texas, published by the Shreveport Geological Society in 1971.
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    Pennsylvanian depositional systems in North-Central Texas; a guide for interpreting terrigenous clastic facies in a cratonic basin
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1973) Brown, L. F. (Leonard Franklin), 1928-
    This field guide is designed to provide an opportunity to observe a variety of facies that are the fundamental blocks with which principal depositional systems have been fabricated. Available data is provided and a genetic interpretation is proposed. Although the validity of the interpretation may be questioned, it is anticipated that the interpretation will focus attention on the problems and limitations of facies interpretation in basin analysis. The principal goal of this field guide is to examine the genetic significance of a variety of common terrigenous elastic facies by attempting to apply a holistic or integrated approach utilizing all available methods and data. Principal use has been made of primary evidence such as data on the regional stratigraphic framework, geologic maps, maps of sandstone bodies, geometry of facies, interpretation of vertical sequences, development of facies tracts, tracing shifts in flow regime from sedimentary structures, paleoecologic evidence, petrographic character of the rocks, and information from other methods of study. Surface and subsurface data are integrated, as is local and regional structural information. The field guide presents (1) a tectonic and depositional synthesis to provide a regional perspective; (2) a brief summary of models of the more common depositional systems; (3) a synthesis of principal stratigraphic units to be examined (Strawn, Canyon, and Cisco Groups); and (4) field localities selected to provide a spectrum of fluvial, deltaic, and strike systems for examination.
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    Texas rocks and minerals ; an amateur's guide
    (University of Texas at Austin. Bureau of Economic Geology, 1964) Girard, Roselle M., 1918-
    Texas has a great variety of rocks and minerals; some are common and others are not. This book is designed to acquaint you with some of them and to tell you in a nontechnical way what they are like, some of the places where they are found, and how they are used. Although we do not know exactly how all of the rocks and minerals formed, some of the ideas about their origin are mentioned. If you would like to learn more about rocks and minerals in general, the names of several reference books are listed on page 100. In addition, scientific reports that describe in detail many of the rocks and minerals of Texas have been published by the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas, the United States Geological Survey, and other organizations. A selected list of these reports is given on pages 100-101. Rocks and minerals are familiar objects to all of us. We pick up attractive or un usual pebbles for our collections, we ad mire rocky mountain peaks, we speak of the mineral resources of our State and Nation. Rocks and minerals enter, either directly or indirectly, into our daily living. From them come the soils in which grow the grains, the fruits, and the vegetables for our food, the trees for our lumber, and the flowers for our pleasure. The iron, copper, lead, gold, silver, and manganese, the sulfur and salt, the clays and building stones, and the other metals and nonmetals that we require for our way of living were once a part of the earth's crust.