# Browsing by Subject "space vehicles: instruments"

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Item Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Cosmological interpretation(2009-02) Komatsu, Eiichiro; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5-year data provide stringent limits on deviations from the minimal, six-parameter. cold dark matter model. We report these limits and use them to constrain the physics of cosmic inflation via Gaussianity, adiabaticity, the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations, gravitational waves, and spatial curvature. We also constrain models of dark energy via its equation of state, parity-violating interaction, and neutrino properties, such as mass and the number of species. We detect no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The six parameters and the corresponding 68% uncertainties, derived from the WMAP data combined with the distance measurements from the Type Ia supernovae (SN) and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies, are: Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02267(-0.00059)(+0.00058), Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1131 +/- 0.0034, Omega(Lambda) = 0.726 +/- 0.015, n(s) = 0.960 +/- 0.013, tau = 0.084 +/- 0.016, and Delta(2)(R) = (2.445 +/- 0.096) x 10(-9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(-1). From these, we derive sigma(8) = 0.812 +/- 0.026, H-0 = 70.5 +/- 1.3 kms(-1) Mpc(-1), Omega(b) = 0.0456 +/- 0.0015, Omega(c) = 0.228 +/- 0.013, Omega(m)h(2) = 0.1358(-0.0036)(+0.0037), z(reion) = 10.9 +/- 1.4, and t(0) = 13.72 +/- 0.12 Gyr. With the WMAP data combined with BAO and SN, we find the limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r < 0.22 (95% CL), and that n(s) > 1 is disfavored even when gravitational waves are included, which constrains the models of inflation that can produce significant gravitational waves, such as chaotic or power-law inflation models, or a blue spectrum, such as hybrid inflation models. We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) equation of state of dark energy and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w(0) < 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 < Omega(k) < 0.0081 (95% CL). We provide a set of "WMAP distance priors," to test a variety of dark energy models with spatial curvature. We test a time-dependent w with a present value constrained as -0.33 < 1 + w(0) < 0.21 (95% CL). Temperature and dark matter fluctuations are found to obey the adiabatic relation to within 8.9% and 2.1% for the axion-type and curvaton-type dark matter, respectively. The power spectra of TB and EB correlations constrain a parity-violating interaction, which rotates the polarization angle and converts E to B. The polarization angle could not be rotated more than -5 degrees.9 < Delta alpha < 2 degrees.4 (95% CL) between the decoupling and the present epoch. We find the limit on the total mass of massive neutrinos of Sigma m(v) < 0.67 eV (95% CL), which is free from the uncertainty in the normalization of the large-scale structure data. The number of relativistic degrees of freedom (dof), expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is constrained as N-eff = 4.4 +/- 1.5 (68%), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Finally, quantitative limits on physically-motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f(NL)(local) < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f(NL)(equil) < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.Show more Item Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results(2009-02) Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter Lambda CDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02267(-0.00059)(+0.00058), Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1131 +/- 0.0034, Omega(Lambda) = 0.726 +/- 0.015, n(s) = 0.960 +/- 0.013, tau = 0.084 +/- 0.016, and Delta(2)(R) = (2.445 +/- 0.096) x 10(-9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(-1). From these we derive sigma(8) = 0.812 +/- 0.026, H(0) = 70.5 +/- 1.3 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), Omega(b) = 0.0456 +/- 0.0015, Omega(c) = 0.228 +/- 0.013, Omega(m)h(2) = 0.1358(-0.0036)(+0.0037), z(reion) = 10.9 +/- 1.4, and t(0) = 13.72 +/- 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0.22 (95% CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn(s)/d ln k = - 0.028 +/- 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: - 0.14 < 1 + w < 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 < Omega(k) < 0.0081 (95% CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N(eff) = 4.4 +/- 1.5 (68% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N(eff) = 0 are disfavored at >99.5% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f(NL)(local) < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f(NL)(equil) < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.Show more Item Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Power Spectra and WMAP-Derived Parameters(2011-02) Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more The WMAP mission has produced sky maps from seven years of observations at L2. We present the angular power spectra derived from the seven-year maps and discuss the cosmological conclusions that can be inferred from WMAP data alone. With the seven-year data, the temperature (TT) spectrum measurement has a signal-to-noise ratio per multipole that exceeds unity for l < 919; and in band powers of width Delta l = 10, the signal-to-noise ratio exceeds unity up to l = 1060. The third acoustic peak in the TT spectrum is now well measured by WMAP. In the context of a flat Lambda CDM model, this improvement allows us to place tighter constraints on the matter density from WMAP data alone, Omega(m)h(2) = 0.1334(-0.0055)(+0.0056), and on the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z(eq) = 3196(-133)(+134). The temperature-polarization (TE) spectrum is detected in the seven-year data with a significance of 20 sigma, compared to 13 sigma with the five-year data. We now detect the second dip in the TE spectrum near l similar to 450 with high confidence. The TB and EB spectra remain consistent with zero, thus demonstrating low systematic errors and foreground residuals in the data. The low-l EE spectrum, a measure of the optical depth due to reionization, is detected at 5.5 sigma significance when averaged over l = 2-7: l(l+ 1)C-l(EE)/(2 pi) = 0.074(-0.025)(+0.034) mu K-2 (68% CL). We now detect the high-l, 24 <= l <= 800, EE spectrum at over 8 sigma. The BB spectrum, an important probe of gravitational waves from inflation, remains consistent with zero; when averaged over l = 2-7, l(l + 1)C-l(BB)/(2 pi) < 0.055 mu K-2 (95% CL). The upper limit on tensor modes from polarization data alone is a factor of two lower with the seven-year data than it was using the five-year data. The data remain consistent with the simple Lambda CDM model: the best-fit TT spectrum has an effective chi(2) of 1227 for 1170 degrees of freedom, with a probability to exceed of 9.6%. The allowable volume in the six-dimensional space of Lambda CDM parameters has been reduced by a factor of 1.5 relative to the five-year volume, while the Lambda CDM model that allows for tensor modes and a running scalar spectral index has a factor of three lower volume when fit to the seven-year data. We test the parameter recovery process for bias and find that the scalar spectral index, n(s), is biased high, but only by 0.09 sigma, while the remaining parameters are biased by <0.15 sigma. The improvement in the third peak measurement leads to tighter lower limits from WMAP on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom (e.g., neutrinos) in the early universe: N-eff > 2.7 (95% CL). Also, using WMAP data alone, the primordial helium mass fraction is found to be Y-He = 0.28(-0.15)(+0.14), and with data from higher-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments included, we now establish the existence of pre-stellar helium at >3 sigma. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.Show more Item Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors, and Basic Results(2011-02) Jarosik, N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat Lambda CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H-0 from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02260 +/- 0.00053, Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1123 +/- 0.0035, Omega(Lambda) = 0.728(-0.016)(+0.015), n(s) = 0.963 +/- 0.012, tau = 0.087 +/- 0.014, and sigma(8) = 0.809 +/- 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l less than or similar to 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, Omega(m)h(2) = 0.1334(-0.0055)(+0.0056), and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z(eq) = 3196(-133)(+134), using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3 sigma detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y-He = 0.326 +/- 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, Sigma m(nu) <= 0.58 eV (95% CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N-eff = 4.34(-0.88)(+0.86). The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n(s) = 0.963 +/- 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3 sigma. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.Show more