# Browsing by Subject "luminous red galaxies"

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Item Extracting Angular Diameter Distance And Expansion Rate Of The Universe From Two-Dimensional Galaxy Power Spectrum At High Redshifts: Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Fitting Versus Full Modeling(2009-03) Shoji, Masatoshi; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shoji, Masatoshi; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more We present a method for extracting the angular diameter distances, D(A), and the expansion rates, H, of the universe from the two-dimensional baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the galaxy power spectrum. Our method builds upon the existing algorithm called the "fit-and-extract" (FITEX) method, which allows one to extract only D(A)(2)/H from a spherically averaged one-dimensional power spectrum. We develop the FITEX-2d method, an extension of the FITEX method, to include the two-dimensional information, which allows us to extract D(A) and H simultaneously. We test the FITEX-2d method using the Millennium Simulation as well as simplified Monte Carlo simulations with a bigger volume. The BAOs, however, contain only a limited amount of information. We show that the full modeling, including the overall shape of the power spectrum, yields much better determinations of D(A) and H, hence the dark energy equation of Stateparameters such as w(0) and w(a), than the BAO-only analysis by more than a factor of 2, provided that nonlinear effects are under control.Show more Item Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Cosmological interpretation(2009-02) Komatsu, Eiichiro; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5-year data provide stringent limits on deviations from the minimal, six-parameter. cold dark matter model. We report these limits and use them to constrain the physics of cosmic inflation via Gaussianity, adiabaticity, the power spectrum of primordial fluctuations, gravitational waves, and spatial curvature. We also constrain models of dark energy via its equation of state, parity-violating interaction, and neutrino properties, such as mass and the number of species. We detect no convincing deviations from the minimal model. The six parameters and the corresponding 68% uncertainties, derived from the WMAP data combined with the distance measurements from the Type Ia supernovae (SN) and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the distribution of galaxies, are: Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02267(-0.00059)(+0.00058), Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1131 +/- 0.0034, Omega(Lambda) = 0.726 +/- 0.015, n(s) = 0.960 +/- 0.013, tau = 0.084 +/- 0.016, and Delta(2)(R) = (2.445 +/- 0.096) x 10(-9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(-1). From these, we derive sigma(8) = 0.812 +/- 0.026, H-0 = 70.5 +/- 1.3 kms(-1) Mpc(-1), Omega(b) = 0.0456 +/- 0.0015, Omega(c) = 0.228 +/- 0.013, Omega(m)h(2) = 0.1358(-0.0036)(+0.0037), z(reion) = 10.9 +/- 1.4, and t(0) = 13.72 +/- 0.12 Gyr. With the WMAP data combined with BAO and SN, we find the limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r < 0.22 (95% CL), and that n(s) > 1 is disfavored even when gravitational waves are included, which constrains the models of inflation that can produce significant gravitational waves, such as chaotic or power-law inflation models, or a blue spectrum, such as hybrid inflation models. We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) equation of state of dark energy and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w(0) < 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 < Omega(k) < 0.0081 (95% CL). We provide a set of "WMAP distance priors," to test a variety of dark energy models with spatial curvature. We test a time-dependent w with a present value constrained as -0.33 < 1 + w(0) < 0.21 (95% CL). Temperature and dark matter fluctuations are found to obey the adiabatic relation to within 8.9% and 2.1% for the axion-type and curvaton-type dark matter, respectively. The power spectra of TB and EB correlations constrain a parity-violating interaction, which rotates the polarization angle and converts E to B. The polarization angle could not be rotated more than -5 degrees.9 < Delta alpha < 2 degrees.4 (95% CL) between the decoupling and the present epoch. We find the limit on the total mass of massive neutrinos of Sigma m(v) < 0.67 eV (95% CL), which is free from the uncertainty in the normalization of the large-scale structure data. The number of relativistic degrees of freedom (dof), expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is constrained as N-eff = 4.4 +/- 1.5 (68%), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Finally, quantitative limits on physically-motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f(NL)(local) < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f(NL)(equil) < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.Show more Item Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters from the WMAP Data(2009-02) Dunkley, J.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Larson, D.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Komatsu, EiichiroShow more This paper focuses on cosmological constraints derived from analysis of WMAP data alone. A simple Lambda CDM cosmological model fits the five-year WMAP temperature and polarization data. The basic parameters of the model are consistent with the three-year data and now better constrained: Omega(b)h(2) = 0.02273 +/- 0.00062, Omega(c)h(2) = 0.1099 +/- 0.0062, Omega(Lambda) = 0.742 +/- 0.030, n(s) = 0.963(-0.015)(+0.014), tau = 0.087 +/- 0.017, and sigma(8) = 0.796 +/- 0.036, with h = 0.719(-0.027)(+0.026). With five years of polarization data, we have measured the optical depth to reionization, tau > 0, at 5 sigma significance. The redshift of an instantaneous reionization is constrained to be z(reion) = 11.0 +/- 1.4 with 68% confidence. The 2 sigma lower limit is zreion > 8.2, and the 3 sigma limit is z(reion) > 6.7. This excludes a sudden reionization of the universe at z = 6 atmore than 3.5 sigma significance, suggesting that reionization was an extended process. Using two methods for polarized foreground cleaning we get consistent estimates for the optical depth, indicating an error due to the foreground treatment of tau similar to 0.01. This cosmological model also fits small-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, and a range of astronomical data measuring the expansion rate and clustering of matter in the universe. We find evidence for the first time in the CMB power spectrum for a nonzero cosmic neutrino background, or a background of relativistic species, with the standard three light neutrino species preferred over the best-fit Lambda CDM model with N-eff = 0 at > 99.5% confidence, and N-eff > 2.3 (95% confidence limit (CL)) when varied. The five-year WMAP data improve the upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r < 0.43 (95% CL), for power-law models, and halve the limit on r for models with a running index, r < 0.58 (95% CL). With longer integration we find no evidence for a running spectral index, with dn(s)/d ln k = -0.037 +/- 0.028, and find improved limits on isocurvature fluctuations. The current WMAP-only limit on the sum of the neutrino masses is Sigma m(v) < 1.3 eV (95% CL), which is robust, to within 10%, to a varying tensor amplitude, running spectral index, or dark energy equation of state.Show more Item An Improved Photometric Calibration Of The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Imaging Data(2008-02) Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Barentine, J. C.; Blanton, Michael R.; Brewington, Howard J.; Gunn, James E.; Harvanek, Michael; Hogg, David W.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Johnston, David; Kent, Stephen M.; Kleinman, S. J.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan; Neilsen, Eric H., Jr.; Nitta, Atsuko; Loomis, Craig; Lupton, Robert H.; Roweis, Sam; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Strauss, Michael A.; Tucker, Douglas L.; Barentine, J. C.Show more We present an algorithm to photometrically calibrate wide-field optical imaging surveys, which simultaneously solves for the calibration parameters and relative stellar fluxes using overlapping observations. The algorithm decouples the problem of "relative'' calibrations from that of "absolute'' calibrations; the absolute calibration is reduced to determining a few numbers for the entire survey. We pay special attention to the spatial structure of the calibration errors, allowing one to isolate particular error modes in downstream analyses. Applying this to the SDSS imaging data, we achieve similar to 1% relative calibration errors across 8500 deg(2) in griz; the errors are similar to 2% for the u band. These errors are dominated by unmodeled atmospheric variations at Apache Point Observatory. These calibrations, dubbed "uber-calibration,'' are now public with SDSS Data Release 6 and will be a part of subsequent SDSS data releases.Show more Item SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys Of The Distant Universe, The Milky Way, And Extra-Solar Planetary Systems(2011-09) Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bosman, Casey T.; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Breslauer, Ben; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burger, Dan; Busca, Nicolas G.; Campbell, Heather; Cargile, Phillip A.; Carithers, William C.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carr, Michael A.; Chang, Liang; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Cortes, Marina; Croft. Rupert A. C.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; de Simoni, Fernando; Dean, Janice; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eiting, Jacob M.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Dutra Ferreira, Leticia; Fitzgerald, Greg; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ford, Eric B.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ge, Jian; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Gilmore, G.; Girardi, Léo; Gott, J. Richard; Gould, Andrew; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Inada, Naohisa; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Cathy; Jordan, Wendell P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kazin, Eyal; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, G. R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Koesterke, Lars; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kron, Richard G.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lang, Dustin; Lawler, James E.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Brian L.; Lee, Young Sun; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Maseman, Paul; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Ménard, Brice; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Morrison, Heather L.; Mullally, Fergal; Muna, Demitri; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Naugle, Tracy; Neto, Angelo Fausti; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pandey, Parul; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Pellegrini, Paulo; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pfaffenberger, Robert; Pforr, Janine; Phleps, Stefanie; Pichon, Christophe; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Ramos, Beatriz H.F.; Reid, I. Neill; Reyle, Celine; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossetto, Bruno; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basilio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sellgren, Kris; Shelden, Alaina; Sheldon, Erin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Silverman, John D.; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stockett, Mark H.; Stollberg, Todd; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yanny, Brian; Yasuda, Naoki; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Young, Erick; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Bo; Koesterke, Lars; Shetrone, Matthew D.Show more Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly alpha forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z approximate to 2.5. SEGUE-2, an already completed SDSS-III survey that is the continuation of the SDSS-II Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE), measured medium-resolution (R = lambda/lambda Delta approximate to 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R approximate to 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >= 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 mu m < lambda < 1.70 mu m) spectra of 105 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for similar to 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 ms(-1), similar to 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z >= 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.Show more