# Browsing by Subject "Partial differential equations"

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9

- Results Per Page
1 5 10 20 40 60 80 100

- Sort Options
Ascending Descending

Item The dynamics of bose gases(2015-05) Taliaferro, Kenneth William; Chen, Thomas (Ph. D. in mechanical engineering and Ph. D. in mathematical physics); Maggi, Francesco; Pavlovic, Natasa; Tzirakis, Nikolaos; Vasseur, AlexisShow more We study the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) hierarchy, which is an infinite sequence of coupled partial differential equations that models the dynamics of Bose gases and arises in the derivation of the cubic and quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equations from an N-body linear Schrödinger equation. In Chapter 2, we consider the cubic case in R³ and derive the GP hierarchy in the strong topology corresponding to the spaces used by Klainerman and Machedon in (82). We also prove that positive semidefiniteness of solutions is preserved over time and use this result to prove global well-posedness of solutions to the GP hierarchy. This is based on a joint work with Thomas Chen (24). In Chapters 3 and 4, we prove uniqueness of solutions to the GP hierarchy in R[superscript d] in a low regularity Sobolev type space in the cubic and quintic cases, respectively. These chapters are an extension of the work of Chen-Hainzl-Pavlović-Seiringer (17) and are based on joint works with Younghun Hong and Zhihui Xie (70,71).Show more Item Global convection in Earth's mantle : advanced numerical methods and extreme-scale simulations(2019-02-06) Rudi, Johann; Ghattas, Omar N.; Stadler, Georg, Ph. D.; Gurnis, Michael; Ren, Kui; Biros, George; Hesse, MarcShow more The thermal convection of rock in Earth's mantle and associated plate tectonics are modeled by nonlinear incompressible Stokes and energy equations. This dissertation focuses on the development of advanced, scalable linear and nonlinear solvers for numerical simulations of realistic instantaneous mantle flow, where we must overcome several computational challenges. The most notable challenges are the severe nonlinearity, heterogeneity, and anisotropy due to the mantle's rheology as well as a wide range of spatial scales and highly localized features. Resolving the crucial small scale features efficiently necessitates adaptive methods, while computational results greatly benefit from a high accuracy per degree of freedom and local mass conservation. Consequently, the discretization of Earth's mantle is carried out by high-order finite elements on aggressively adaptively refined hexahedral meshes with a continuous, nodal velocity approximation and a discontinuous, modal pressure approximation. These velocity--pressure pairings yield optimal asymptotic convergence rates of the finite element approximation to the infinite-dimensional solution with decreasing mesh element size, are inf-sup stable on general, non-conforming hexahedral meshes with "hanging nodes,'' and have the advantage of preserving mass locally at the element level due to the discontinuous pressure. However, because of the difficulties cited above and the desired accuracy, the large implicit systems to be solved are extremely poorly conditioned and sophisticated linear and nonlinear solvers including powerful preconditioning techniques are required. The nonlinear Stokes system is solved using a grid continuation, inexact Newton--Krylov method. We measure the residual of the momentum equation in the H⁻¹-norm for backtracking line search to avoid overly conservative update steps that are significantly reduced from one. The Newton linearization is augmented by a perturbation of a highly nonlinear term in mantle's rheology, resulting in dramatically improved nonlinear convergence. We present a new Schur complement-based Stokes preconditioner, weighted BFBT, that exhibits robust fast convergence for Stokes problems with smooth but highly varying (up to 10 orders of magnitude) viscosities, optimal algorithmic scalability with respect to mesh refinement, and only a mild dependence on the polynomial order of high-order finite element discretizations. In addition, we derive theoretical eigenvalue bounds to prove spectral equivalence of our inverse Schur complement approximation. Finally, we present a parallel hybrid spectral--geometric--algebraic multigrid (HMG) to approximate the inverses of the Stokes system's viscous block and variable-coefficient pressure Poisson operators within weighted BFBT. Building on the parallel scalability of HMG, our Stokes solver demonstrates excellent parallel scalability to 1.6 million CPU cores without sacrificing algorithmic optimality.Show more Item Incompressible Boussinesq equations and spaces of borderline Besov type(2012-05) Glenn-Levin, Jacob Benjamin; Vishik, Mikhail; Gamba, Irene; Morrison, Phil; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard; Vasseur, AlexisShow more The Boussinesq approximation is a set of fluids equations utilized in the atmospheric and oceanographic sciences. They may be thought of as inhomogeneous, incompressible Euler or Navier-Stokes equations, where the inhomogeneous term is a scalar quantity, typically representing density or temperature, governed by a convection-diffusion equation. In this thesis, we prove local-in-time existence and uniqueness of an inviscid Boussinesq system. Furthermore, we show that under stronger assumptions, the local-in-time results can be extended to global-in-time existence and uniqueness as well. We assume the density equation contains nonzero diffusion and that our initial vorticity and density belong to a space of borderline Besov-type. We use paradifferential calculus and properties of the Besov-type spaces to control the growth of vorticity via an a priori estimate on the growth of density. This result is motivated by work of M. Vishik demonstrating local-in-time existence and uniqueness for 2D Euler equations in borderline Besov-type spaces, and by work of R. Danchin and M. Paicu showing the global well-posedness of the 2D Boussinesq system with initial data in critical Besov and Lp-spaces.Show more Item On the Aubry-Mather theory for partial differential equations and the stability of stochastically forced ordinary differential equations(2011-05) Blass, Timothy James; Llave, Rafael de la; Caffarelli, Luis; Koch, Hans; Radin, Charles; Rodin, Greg; Ying, LexingShow more This dissertation is organized into four chapters: an introduction followed by three chapters, each based on one of three separate papers. In Chapter 2 we consider gradient descent equations for energy functionals of the type [mathematical equation] where A is a second-order uniformly elliptic operator with smooth coefficients. We consider the gradient descent equation for S, where the gradient is an element of the Sobolev space H[superscipt beta], [beta is an element of](0, 1), with a metric that depends on A and a positive number [gamma] > sup |V₂₂|. The main result of Chapter 2 is a weak comparison principle for such a gradient flow. We extend our methods to the case where A is a fractional power of an elliptic operator, and we provide an application to the Aubry-Mather theory for partial differential equations and pseudo-differential equations by finding plane-like minimizers of the energy functional. In Chapter 3 we investigate the differentiability of the minimal average energy associated to the functionals [mathematical equation] using numerical and perturbation methods. We use the Sobolev gradient descent method as a numerical tool to compute solutions of the Euler-Lagrange equations with some periodicity conditions; this is the cell problem in homogenization. We use these solutions to determine the minimal average energy as a function of the slope. We also obtain a representation of the solutions to the Euler-Lagrange equations as a Lindstedt series in the perturbation parameter [epsilon], and use this to confirm our numerical results. Additionally, we prove convergence of the Lindstedt series. In Chapter 4 we present a method for determining the stability of a class of stochastically forced ordinary differential equations, where the forcing term can be obtained by passing white noise through a filter of arbitrarily high degree. We use the Fokker-Planck equation to write a partial differential equation for the second moments, which we turn into an eigenvalue problem for a second-order differential operator. We develop ladder operators to determine analytic expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of this differential operator, and thus determine the stability.Show more Item On the linear stability problem for Jeffery-Hamel flows(2015-05) Carlson, William Zechariah; Vishik, Mikhail; Chen, Thomas; Pavlovic, Natasa; Vasseur, Alexis; Bogard, DavidShow more We study the linear stability of a family of Jeffery-Hamel solutions which satisfy a zero flux condition. With a suitable regularization of these velocity profiles we show that the linearized perturbation equation is well-posed on a weighted L² space with a certain class of radial weights, in the example of a half plane or in the whole plane. We prove that the perturbed Stokes operator of this system is the generator of a strongly continuous analytic semigroup. We also describe some formal asymptotics under which the linear stability problem could be reduced to a one dimensional problem for which we state a formal perturbation theory.Show more Item Pinched manifolds becoming dull(2018-06-15) Carson, Timothy Philip; Knopf, Daniel, 1959-; Haslhofer, Robert; Neitke, Andrew; Perutz, Timothy; Sesum, NatasaShow more In this thesis, we prove short-time existence for Ricci flow, for a class of metrics with unbounded curvature. Our primary motivation in investigating this class of metrics is that it includes many final-time limits of Ricci flow singularities. Well known examples include neckpinches and degenerate neckpinches. We provide an example of Ricci flow modifying a neighborhood of a manifold with the topological change [mathematical equation], although we only rigorously deal with the second part of the transformation. We also provide forward evolution from some manifolds with ends of infinite length and unbounded curvature, such as the submanifold given by [mathematical equation]. In this example, the two ends with unbounded curvature immediately become compact and with bounded curvature, so the topology of the forward evolution is S³.Show more Item Stability of dual discretization methods for partial differential equations(2011-05) Gillette, Andrew Kruse; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Demkowicz, Leszek; Gonzalez, Oscar; Luecke, John; Reid, Alan; Vick, JamesShow more This thesis studies the approximation of solutions to partial differential equations (PDEs) over domains discretized by the dual of a simplicial mesh. While `primal' methods associate degrees of freedom (DoFs) of the solution with specific geometrical entities of a simplicial mesh (simplex vertices, edges, faces, etc.), a `dual discretization method' associates DoFs with the geometric duals of these objects. In a tetrahedral mesh, for instance, a primal method might assign DoFs to edges of tetrahedra while a dual method for the same problem would assign DoFs to edges connecting circumcenters of adjacent tetrahedra. Dual discretization methods have been proposed for various specific PDE problems, especially in the context of electromagnetics, but have not been analyzed using the full toolkit of modern numerical analysis as is considered here. The recent and still-developing theories of finite element exterior calculus (FEEC) and discrete exterior calculus (DEC) are shown to be essential in understanding the feasibility of dual methods. These theories treat the solutions of continuous PDEs as differential forms which are then discretized as cochains (vectors of DoFs) over a mesh. While the language of DEC is ideal for describing dual methods in a straightforward fashion, the results of FEEC are required for proving convergence results. Our results about dual methods are focused on two types of stability associated with PDE solvers: discretization and numerical. Discretization stability analyzes the convergence of the approximate solution from the discrete method to the continuous solution of the PDE as the maximum size of a mesh element goes to zero. Numerical stability analyzes the potential roundoff errors accrued when computing an approximate solution. We show that dual methods can attain the same approximation power with regard to discretization stability as primal methods and may, in some circumstances, offer improved numerical stability properties. A lengthier exposition of the approach and a detailed description of our results is given in the first chapter of the thesis.Show more Item Symmetry properties of crystals and new bounds from below on the temperature in compressible fluid dynamics(2012-08) Baer, Eric Theles; Figalli, Alessio; Caffarelli, Luis; Gamba, Irene; Pavlovic, Natasa; Maggi, Francesco; Vasseur, AlexisShow more In this thesis we collect the study of two problems in the Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations. Our first group of results concern the analysis of minimizers in a variational model describing the shape of liquid drops and crystals under the influence of gravity, resting on a horizontal surface. Making use of anisotropic symmetrization techniques and an analysis of fine properties of minimizers within the class of sets of finite perimeter, we establish existence, convexity and symmetry of minimizers. In the case of smooth surface tensions, we obtain uniqueness of minimizers via an ODE characterization. In the second group of results discussed in this thesis, which is joint work with A. Vasseur, we treat a problem in compressible fluid dynamics, establishing a uniform bound from below on the temperature for a variant of the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system under suitable hypotheses. This system of equations forms a mathematical model of the motion of a compressible fluid subject to heat conduction. Building upon the work of (Mellet, Vasseur 2009), we identify a class of weak solutions satisfying a localized form of the entropy inequality (adapted to measure the set where the temperature becomes small) and use a form of the De Giorgi argument for L[superscript infinity] bounds of solutions to elliptic equations with bounded measurable coefficients.Show more Item Toward seamless multiscale computations(2013-05) Lee, Yoonsang, active 2013; Engquist, Björn, 1945-Show more Efficient and robust numerical simulation of multiscale problems encountered in science and engineering is a formidable challenge. Full resolution of multiscale problems using direct numerical simulations requires enormous amounts of computational time and resources. This thesis develops seamless multiscale methods for ordinary and partial differential equations under the framework of the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM). The first part of the thesis is devoted to the development of seamless multiscale integrators for ordinary differential equations. The first method, which we call backward-forward HMM (BFHMM), uses splitting and on-the-fly filtering techniques to capture slow variables of highly oscillatory problems without any a priori information. The second method, denoted by variable step size HMM (VSHMM), as the name implies, uses variable mesoscopic step sizes for the unperturbed equation, which gives computational efficiency and higher accuracy. VSHMM can be applied to dissipative problems as well as highly oscillatory problems, while BFHMM has some difficulties when applied to the dissipative case. The effect of variable time stepping is analyzed and the two methods are tested numerically. Multi-spatial problems and numerical methods are discussed in the second part. Seamless heterogeneous multiscale methods (SHMM) for partial differential equations, especially the parabolic case without scale separation are proposed. SHMM is developed first for the multiscale heat equation with a continuum of scales in the diffusion coefficient. This seamless method uses a hierarchy of local grids to capture effects from each scale and uses filtering in Fourier space to impose an artificial scale gap. SHMM is then applied to advection enhanced diffusion problems under incompressible turbulent velocity fields.Show more