Browsing Working Group on Law and Democracy by Issue Date
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ItemQuem iria votar? Conhecendo as consequências do voto obrigatório no Brasil(2000) Elkins, Zachary ItemGradations of Democracy? Empirical Tests of Alternative Conceptualizations(American Journal of Political Science, 2000-04) Elkins, ZacharyA group of influential scholars has argued emphatically that democracy should be measured dichotomously. This position challenges--on both theoretical and methodological grounds--the widespread practice of measuring democracy with graded scales, a practice which has been endorsed by leading methodologists who study democracy. This article proposes several empirical tests that evaluate the competing strategies. The evidence suggests that, on the whole, graded measures have superior validity and reliability. Hence, we should understand that specific cases correspond to the concept of democracy to varying degrees--degrees that can and should be measured. ItemClassifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-1999.(Studies in Comparative International Development, 2001) Mainwaring, Scott; Brinks, Daniel M; Pérez-Liñán, AníbalThis article is about how political regimes should generally be classified, and how Latin American regimes should be classified for the 1945-99 period. We make five general claims about regime classification. First, regime classification should rest on sound concepts and definitions. Second, it should be based on explicit and sensible coding and aggregation rules. Third, it necessarily involves some subjective judgments. Fourth, the debate about dichotomous versus continuous measures of democracy creates a false dilemma. Neither democratic theory, nor coding requirements, nor the reality underlying democratic practice compel either a dichotomous or a continuous approach in all cases. Fifth, dichotomous measures of democracy fail to capture intermediate regime types, obscuring variation that is essential for studying political regimes. This general discussion provides the grounding for our trichotomous ordinal scale, which codes regimes as democratic, semi-democratic or authoritarian in nineteen Latin American countries from 1945 to 1999. Our trichotomous classification achieves greater differentiation than dichotomous classifications and yet avoids the need for massive information that a very fine-grained measure would require. ItemAre Patriots Bigots? An Inquiry into the Vices of In-group Pride(2003) Elkins, ZacharyOne view in the study of intergroup conflict is that pride implies prejudice. However, an increasing number of scholars have come to view in-group pride more benignly, suggesting that pride can be accompanied by a full range of feelings toward the out-group. In this paper, we focus on a substantively interesting case of ingroup/ out-group attitudes – national pride and hostility towards immigrants. We explore the relationship in two fundamental ways: first by examining the prejudice associated with various dimensions of pride, and second by embedding these relationships in a comprehensive model of prejudice. We find that national pride is most validly measured with two dimensions – patriotism and nationalism – two dimensions that have very different relationships with prejudice. While nationalists have a strong predilection for hostility towards immigrants, patriots show no more prejudice than does the average citizen. ItemThe Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy(American Political Science Review, 2004-02) Elkins, Zachary; Simmons, Beth A.One of the most important developments over the past three decades has been the spread of liberal economic ideas and policies throughout the world. These policies have affected the lives of millions of people, yet our most sophisticated political economy models do not adequately capture influences on these policy choices. Evidence suggests that the adoption of liberal economic practices is highly clustered both temporally and spatially. We hypothesize that this clustering might be due to processes of policy diffusion. We think of diffusion as resulting from one of two broad sets of forces: one in which mounting adoptions of a policy alter the benefits of adopting for others and another in which adoptions provide policy relevant information about the benefits of adopting. We develop arguments within these broad classes of mechanisms, construct appropriate measures of the relevant concepts, and test their effects on liberalization and restriction of the current account, the capital account, and the exchange rate regime. Our findings suggest that domestic models of foreign economic policy making are insufficient. The evidence shows that policy transitions are influenced by international economic competition as well as the policies of a country's sociocultural peers. We interpret the latter influence as a form of channeled learning reflecting governments' search for appropriate models for economic policy. ItemOn Waves, Clusters, and Diffusion: A Conceptual Framework(2005) Elkins, Zachary; Simmons, BethThis article makes a conceptual and theoretical contri- bution to the study of diffusion. The authors suggest that the concept of diffusion be reserved for processes (not outcomes) characterized by a certain uncoordinated interdependence. Theoretically, the authors identify the principal sources of clustered policy reforms. They then clarify the characteristics specific to diffusion mecha- nisms and introduce a categorization of such processes. In particular, they make a distinction between two types of diffusion: adaptation and learning. They argue that this categorization adds conceptual clarity and distinguishes mechanisms with distinct substantive consequences. ItemDiffusion is no Illusion: Neighbor Emulation in the Third Wave of Democracy(Comparative Political Studies, 2006) Brinks, Daniel M; Coppedge, MichaelThis article develops and tests a specific model of the role of diffusion as a determinant of the magnitude and direction of regime change, using a database covering the world from 1972 to 1996. The authors find that countries tend to change their regimes to match the average degree of democracy or nondemocracy found among their contiguous neighbors and that countries in the U.S. sphere of influence tended to become more democratic in the period examined. They also confirm that countries tend to follow the direction in which the majority of other countries in the world are moving. Their model builds on several findings in the diffusion literature but adds methodological improvements and includes more extensive controls for other variables that have been found to affect regime change—including levels of development, presidentialism, and regional differences—offering further support for some and challenging other findings of the regime change literature. ItemCompeting for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1960-2000(International Organization, 2006-10) Elkins, Zachary; Guzman, Andrew; Simmons, Beth A.Over the past forty-five years, bilateral investment treaties (BITs) have become the most important international legal mechanism for the encouragement and governance of foreign direct investment. The proliferation of BITs during the past two decades in particular has been phenomenal. These intergovernmental treaties typically grant extensive rights to foreign investors, including protection of contractual rights and the right to international arbitration in the event of an investment dispute. How can we explain the widespread adoption of BITs? We argue that the spread of BITs is driven by international competition among potential host countries—typically developing countries—for foreign direct investment. We propose a set of hypotheses that derive from such an explanation and develop a set of empirical tests that rely on network measures of economic competition as well as more indirect evidence of competitive pressures on the host to sign BITs. The evidence suggests that potential hosts are more likely to sign BITs when their competitors have done so. We find some evidence that coercion and learning play a role, but less support for cultural explanations based on emulation. Our main finding is that the diffusion of BITs is associated with competitive economic pressures among developing countries to capture a share of foreign investment. We are agnostic at this point about the benefits of this competition for development. ItemClassifying Political Regimes in Latin America, 1945-2004(Oxford University Press, 2007) Mainwaring, Scott; Brinks, Daniel M; Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal ItemCan Institutions Build Unity in Multiethnic States?(American Political Science Review, 2007-11) Elkins, Zachary; Sides, JohnWe investigate whether political institutions can promote attachment to the state in multiethnic societies. Building on literatures on nationalism, democratization, and conﬂict resolution, we discuss the importance of attachment, understood as a psychological identiﬁcation with, and pride in, the state. We construct a model of state attachment, specifying the individual-, group-, and state-level conditions that foster it. Then, using cross-national survey data from 51 multiethnic states, we show that, in general, ethnic minorities manifest less attachment to the states in which they reside than do majorities. Combining the survey data with minority group attributes and country-level attributes, we show that the attachment of minorities varies importantly across groups and countries. Our central ﬁnding is that federalism and proportional electoral systems—–two highly touted solutions to ethnic divisions—–have at best mixed effects. These results have implications for state-building and democratic consolidation in ethnically heterogeneous states.