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ItemCreating the Technopolis: High-Technology Development in Austin, Texas(Journal of Business Venturing, 1989-01) Smilor, Raymond W.; Gibson, David V.; Kozmetsky, GeorgeNew institutional alliances, driven by the rapid increase in and diversity of new technologies, are altering the strategy and tactics of economic development. As a result, communities across the world are seeking to create modern technopoleis or city-states that interactively link technology commercialization with public and private sectors to spur economic growth and diversification through high-technology company development. This paper develops the conceptual framework of a technopolis wheel from studying the dynamics of high-technology development and economic growth in Austin, Texas. It describes seven segments within the technopolis: the university, large technology companies, small technology companies, federal government, state government, local government and support groups. (Author's preprint.) ItemData Envelopment Analysis and Commercial Bank Performance: A Primer with Applications to Missouri Banks(Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 1992-01) Yue, PiyuThis paper describes a particular methodology called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), that has been used previously to analyze the relative efficiencies of industrial firms, universities, hospitals, military operations, baseball players and, more recently, commercial banks. The use of DEA is demonstrated by evaluating the management of 60 Missouri commercial banks for the period from 1984 to 1990. ItemKnowledge for Inclusive Development: The Challenges of Globally Integrated Learning and Implications for Science and Technology Policy(1999-12) Conceição, Pedro; Gibson, David V.; Heitor, Manuel V.; Sirilli, GiorgioAs the importance of knowledge creation and diffusion is increasingly recognized as a major driver of economic growth, questions are starting to emerge on how to establish the conditions that foster the processes of knowledge sharing across countries at different levels of development. Under the broad designation of “knowledge for inclusive development,” these questions defined one of the strongest themes of the 2 nd International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI), which was held in Lisbon in August of 1998. While the idea of inclusive development entails a process of shared prosperity across the globe following local specific conditions, it is crucial to understand both the features of knowledgeinduced growth in rich countries, as well as the challenges and opportunities for late-industrialized and less developed countries. Thus, this special issue includes a set of extended contributions to the Lisbon conference that are largely grounded on empirical experiences of both developed and developing countries. The aim of this introductory paper is to set the stage for these contributions, with an original contribution on possible roles for science and technology policy in promoting inclusive development. ItemBeyond the Digital Economy: A Perspective on Innovation for the Learning Society(2000) Conceição, Pedro; Gibson, David V.; Heitor, Manuel V.; Sirilli, GiorgioIn view of the current socio-economic context, in which innovation is a key driving force for the sustainable development, which challenges are facing education and research to enhance and nurture innovation and better contribute to help developing and exploiting engineering, science and technology? This broad question has motivated the work behind the present work, which reviews the strongest themes of the 3rd International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI), which was held in Austin, Texas, in August of 1999. ItemKnowledge and Technology Transfer: Levels and Key Factors(International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI), 2000-08) Sung, Tae Kyung; Gibson, David V.Most current literature on knowledge and technology transfer (Appropriability Model, Dissemination Model, and Knowledge Utilization Model), describe the process of transfer in details, but has limitation in terms of their application in contemporary high-tech industries since most studies have not provided plausible explanation on levels and factors affecting transfer of knowledge and/or technology. To overcome these limitations, the four levels of knowledge and technology transfer are suggested: Knowledge and Technology Creation (Level I), Sharing (Level II), Implementation (Level III), and Commercialization (Level IV). Comprehensive literature identifies sixteen variables affecting the process and results of knowledge and tec hnology transfer. The survey results show four key factors in knowledge and technology transfer: Communication, Distance, Equivocality, and Motivation. Communication refers to the degree to which a medium is able to efficiently and accurately conveys task-relevant information and media while distance involves both physical and cultural proximity. Equivocality refers to the degree of concreteness of knowledge and technology to be transferred while motivation involves incentives for and the recognition of the importance of knowledge and technology transfer activities. Further analysis shows that there are four distinctive clusters and they show very contrasting characteristics in terms of four key factors. The careful mapping of the four clusters on the four key factors show very informative knowledge and technology transfer patterns, the Knowledge and Technology Transfer Grid. Finally, actions to increase communication interactivity and motivation, and to reduce cultural distance and equivocality are suggested. Presented at the 4th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI) in Curitiba, Brazil. ItemKnowledge Interaction Towards Inclusive Learning: Promoting Systems of Innovation and Competence Building(Elsevier Science Inc., 2002) Conceição, Pedro; Heitor, Manuel V.This paper draws on recent conceptual approaches to economic growth, in which the accumulation of knowledge is the fundamental driving force behind growth. This fact is reflected in the trend in developed economies towards an increasing investment in advanced technology, R&D, education, and culture. Concepts such as learning ability, creativity, and sustained flexibility gain greater importance as guiding principles for the conduct of individuals, institutions, nations, and regions. It is thus legitimate to question the traditional way of viewing the role that contemporary institutions play in the process of economic development and to argue for the need to promote systems of innovation and competence building based on learning and knowledge networks. This broad concept has motivated the work behind the present work, which reviews the strongest themes of the 4th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation (ICTPI), which was held in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, in August of 2000. Under the broad designation of "learning and knowledge networks," the conference brought together a range of experts to discuss technology, policy, and management in a context much influenced by a dynamics of change and a necessary balance between the creation and diffusion of knowledge. While the idea of inclusive development developed in previous conferences entails a process of shared prosperity across the globe following local specific conditions, it is crucial to understand the dynamics of the process of knowledge accumulation, which drives a learning society. Thus, this special issue includes a set of extended contributions to the Curitiba conference that are largely grounded on empirical experiences of different regional and national contexts. The aim of this introductory paper is to set the stage for these contributions, with an original contribution on possible views for the learning society. ItemIncubating and Networking Technology Commercialization Centers among Emerging, Developing, and Mature Technopoleis Worldwide(Elsevier Science Ltd., 2003) Gibson, David V.; Conceição, PedroThe ability and desire to access knowledge and to be able to learn and put knowledge to work is central to regional economic development and for globalization to be a force for drawing the world together. This chapter presents the logic, conceptual framework, and key elements for leveraging codiﬁed knowledge and tacit know-how through Internet and web-based networks and face-to-face communication and training programs. The objective is to accelerate regional economic development and shared prosperity through globally linked and leveraged Technology Commercialization Centers (TCCs) and to enhance the competitiveness and accelerate the growth of select regionally-based SMEs. ItemOverview of US Incubators and the Case of the Austin Technology Incubator(Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, 2003) Wiggins, Joel; Gibson, David V.Business incubators have a 25-year history in the US. Today they number more than 800. Most are non-profit entities, many associated with universities. This article provides a general overview of business incubation in the US and provides a case study of the award-winning Austin Technology Incubator whose companies have generated over $1.4 billion in revenues and created some 3,000 jobs. The authors conclude that business incubators must accomplish five tasks well in order to succeed: (1) establish clear metrics for success; (2) provide entrepreneurial leadership; (3) develop and deliver valueadded services to member companies; (4) develop a rational new-company selection process; and (5) ensure that member companies gain access to necessary human and financial resources. ItemCharacteristics of Technology Transfer in Business Ventures: The Case of Daejeon, Korea(2003) Sung, Tae Kyung; Gibson, David V.; Kang, Byung-SuThis article explores the characteristics of venture business and entrepreneurs in Korea to (1) identify technology transfer activities, (2) analyze the differences between technology transfer in linear and nonlinear venture businesses, and (3) guide more effective venture business policy and strategy. This empirical assessment reveals that entrepreneurs have insightful evaluations about their resources and capacities as well as expectations with regard to functions and features of science parks and incubators. Respondents from "linear model"-based start-ups tend to be older and have higher education, employ more basic research and development (R&D) and have more R&D-oriented careers, and have more varied work experience than "nonlinear"-based start-ups. The functions and features of science parks and incubators were generally not considered a critical influence on start-ups nor on the growth of venture businesses. Accordingly, alternative venture-nurturing strategies are discussed as being key to accelerate venture businesses growth. ItemA Guiding Vision for Fluid Learning: The Future of Education and Training(IC² Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 2003-04) Jackson, Melinda L.; Woelk, DarrellPosition paper by the Digital Media Collaboratory (DMC) of the IC² Institute at The University of Texas at Austin. The authors envision learning systems as a ubiquitous public utility and propose an architecture to accomplish it. The paper includes a description of DMC research activities in 2003.