The influence of obesity and lipid metabolism on thymic function

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The influence of obesity and lipid metabolism on thymic function

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dc.contributor.advisor Ciolino, Henry P.
dc.contributor.advisor Jolly, Christopher A.
dc.creator Gulvady, Apeksha Ashok
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-29T22:08:30Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-29T22:08:30Z
dc.date.created 2011-05
dc.date.issued 2012-11-29
dc.date.submitted May 2011
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2152/ETD-UT-2011-05-3276
dc.description.abstract Approximately two-thirds of US adults are overweight or obese, and obesity is also becoming more prevalent in children and adolescents. Similar to adults, obese children are at a higher risk of developing health problems due in part to dysfunctional immune surveillance. Obesity has been shown reduce the generation of new T-cells by accelerating thymic aging in an adult mouse. This study therefore aimed at determining whether similar diet induced obesity (DIO) changes can be induced in a young mouse. Comparisons made between lean and DIO C57Bl/6 mice showed a significant increase in thymic weight, decrease in thymic cellularity and thymic output, and impaired T-cell development at the double negative stage. We associate these alterations with changes in thymic architecture and accumulation of lipid droplets within the thymic cortex and medulla of the obese mice. The above observations indicate that DIO can induce fat accumulation and reduce thymic function at a young age. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound, was then used to regulate fat metabolism in an attempt to reduce these DIO changes we observed. Resveratrol induces fat oxidation via 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and its reciprocal regulation of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT-1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzymes required for glycerophospholipid biosynthesis and oxidation, respectively. Through resveratrol feeding, we were able to prevent the effects of DIO on thymic architecture and thymic T-cell proliferation. This was achieved by manipulating AMPK into inhibiting GPAT-1 and enhancing CPT-1 activity. Since the expression of GPAT-1 was upregulated in the obese mice, we investigated whether deleting GPAT-1 altogether might prevent the thymic involution, by inhibiting synthesis of glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerol. Instead, we found that GPAT-1 deletion slowed thymic growth and reduced cellularity in young mice, which we associated with impaired thymic T-cell function and development, suggesting that the deleterious effects of GPAT-1 deficiency may be due to perturbations in thymic T-cell activation and signaling. These data provide a novel link between lipid metabolism and T-cell development, and identify the use of the naturally-occurring resveratrol to reduce lipid accumulation within the involution-prone thymus, thus providing a useful approach to preventing a decline in thymic function in childhood.
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language.iso eng
dc.subject Thymus
dc.subject Obesity
dc.subject T-cell
dc.subject Resveratrol
dc.subject AMPK
dc.subject GPAT-1
dc.subject CPT-1
dc.title The influence of obesity and lipid metabolism on thymic function
dc.date.updated 2012-11-29T22:08:40Z
dc.identifier.slug 2152/ETD-UT-2011-05-3276
dc.contributor.committeeMember Sanders, Bob G.
dc.contributor.committeeMember Kline, Kimberly
dc.contributor.committeeMember Richie, Ellen R.
dc.contributor.committeeMember Maynard, Jennifer A.
dc.description.department Nutritional Sciences
dc.type.genre thesis
dc.type.material text
thesis.degree.department Nutritional Sciences
thesis.degree.discipline Nutritional Sciences
thesis.degree.grantor University of Texas at Austin
thesis.degree.level Doctoral
thesis.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy

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